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7. Resource & Subclasses

More detail about the role of a resource in the Architecture document.

7.1 Resource

A resource that may be aggregated in a Service Offering or exist independently of it.

Attribute Card. Trust Anchor Comment
aggregationOf[] 0..* State resources related to the resource and that can exist independently of it.
name 0..1 State A human readable name of the data resource
description 0..1 State A free text description of the data resource

7.2 Physical Resource

A Physical Resource inherits from a Resource.
A Physical resource is, but not limited to, a datacenter, a bare-metal service, a warehouse, a plant. Those are entities that have a weight and position in physical space.

Attribute Card. Trust Anchor Comment
maintainedBy[] 1..* State a list of participant maintaining the resource in operational condition and thus having physical access to it.
ownedBy[] 0..* State a list of participant owning the resource.
manufacturedBy[] 0..* State a list of participant manufacturing the resource.
locationAddress[].countryCode 1..* State a list of physical locations in ISO 3166-2 alpha2, alpha-3 or numeric format.
location[].gps 0..* State a list of physical GPS in ISO 6709:2008/Cor 1:2009 format.

7.3 Virtual Resource

A Virtual Resource inherits from a Resource.
A Virtual resource is a resource describing recorded information such as, and not limited to, a dataset, a software, a configuration file, an AI model. Special subclasses of Virtual Resource are SoftwareResource and DataResource.


VirtualResource <|-- SoftwareResource
VirtualResource <|-- DataResource 
Attribute Card. Trust Anchor Comment
copyrightOwnedBy[] 1..* State A list of copyright owners either as a free form string or participant URIs from which Self-Descriptions can be retrieved. A copyright owner is a person or organization that has the right to exploit the resource. Copyright owner does not necessarily refer to the author of the resource, who is a natural person and may differ from copyright owner.
license[] 1..* State A list of SPDX identifiers or URL to document
policy[] 1..* State a list of policy expressed using a DSL (e.g., Rego or ODRL) (access control, throttling, usage, retention, …)

The license refers to the license of the virtual resource - data or software, not the license of potential instance of that virtual resource.

If there is no specified usage policy constraints on the VirtualResource, the policy should express a simple default: allow intent.

7.4 Data Resource

A data resource is a subclass of virtual resource exposed through a service instance.
It’s also known as a Data Product as described in the Gaia-X Data Exchange specification document.

A data resource is extending the DCAT-3 Dataset class and primarily refers to an analytical dataset exposed via one or more InstantiatedVirtualResource service access points.

The data resource consists of the characterisation of the actual data as a description of the “contractual” part. At minimum, this self-description needs to contain all information so that a consumer can initiate a contract negotiation. All other attributes that are used to describe the data are optional. However, the provider has an interest to precisely describe the data so that it can be found and consumed. If the data resource is published in a catalogue, the data provider might precisely describe the data resource so that it can be found and consumed by data consumers.

Attribute Card. Trust Anchor Comment
producedBy 1 State a resolvable link to the participant self-description legally enabling the data usage
exposedThrough[] 1..* producedBy A resolvable link to the data exchange component that exposes the data resource.
obsoleteDateTime 0..1 producedBy date time in ISO 8601 format after which data is obsolete.
expirationDateTime 0..1 producedBy date time in ISO 8601 format after which data is expired and shall be deleted.
containsPII 1 producedBy boolean determined by Participant owning the Data Resource

NOTE: Data Resources will have to align with the adequate protection of (personal) data. Data Resources are most likely applicable in the context of Data Spaces respectively Data Sharing Ecosystems (following, both referred to as “Data Space”). Data Spaces require substantial evaluation in regards to different responsibilities and subsequent definition of requirements. As Data Spaces are temporarily excluded from the Policy Rules and Labelling Criteria until such fundamental aspects are resolvers, the Trust Framework will also not extend the attributes unless necessary. Saying: Especially when the protection of PII and IPR will be concerned, i.e., the validation of legitimate collection and sharing of data, the Trust Framework may limit its attributes to the identification if such data will be concerned as well as if legitimate grounds are identified. More sophisticated approaches, such as tracing legitimate grounds alongside the processing chain, technical enforcement of processing limitations by policies, are subject to future iterations.

Consistency rules

  • the keypair used to sign the Data Resource claims must be traceable to the producedBy participant of the Data Resource.
  • if containsPIIis true, attributes related to the Legitimate Processing of Information related to PII become mandatory.
Attribute Card. Trust Anchor Comment
legalBasis 1 producedBy or ownedBy One of the reasons as detailed in the identified Personal Data Protection Regimes, such as [GDPR2018]. Potential Legal Bases can be article 6, article 7 or article 9. It shall be expressed as a string matching 6.1.[a-f], 6.1.4, 7 or 9.2.[a-j].
(Note: this list is not final, as GDPR and Member State Law may provide for additional legal basis. Those will be implemented as options in future iterations.)
dataProtectionContact 1 producedBy means to address distinct personal data protection related questions related to the Data Source, either an URL pointing to a contact form or an emailaddress.

Where Data Consumers conclude with their individual risk assessment that more information is needed, i.e., in cases where the generic information on the applied legal bases may not suffice but more granular information is considered necessary, each Data Source shall provide for a dedicated contact point.
The contact point may be a functional email address.

NOTE: The Trust Framework admits that any (semi-)automated propagation and enforcement of processing policies, i.e., determination of legitimate processing period, data types, transfers, aggregation, purposes, commercial or non-commercial use will require a sophisticated syntax and inter-related logic of attributes. Against the background of the complexity, the development will be performed iteratively, beginning with the next release.